The Plymouth Company sailed for the New World in August 1606, but the ship was intercepted, captured by the Spanish near Florida and never reached its destination. Their next attempt was in May 1607, and that time they sent two ships and about 120 colonists. They arrived in August 1607 and established a settlement known as the Popham Colony in present day Phippsburg, Maine near the Kennebec River. Half the colonists returned to England in the fall of 1607 and the other half stayed through the winter, spring and summer. During that time they built a 30-ton ship they named Virginia and late that summer the colony was abandoned when all the remaining colonists returned to England.
Then in 1625, James 1st died and Charles 1st ascended to the throne. In 1629, he granted to Sir Robert Heath a charter for Carolana with the same goal of establishing a permanent settlement in North Carolina, but the results were unsuccessful. Some years later, in 1653, settlers from Virginia crossed over the border and settled on the Chowan and Roanoke rivers, in a district called Albemarle.
After the Commonwealth period, the English monarchy was restored in 1663 when Charles 2nd returned from exile. He gave the charter for Carolina to eight noblemen … the true and absolute Lords’ Proprietors … who had assisted with his return and the Restoration of the British monarchy.
Now history merges with the attempts to establish a permanent settlement in Carolina that I described in the previous narrative. The original idea was that settlers from Virginia and New England could be enticed to move down the coast into Carolina. Sir William Berkeley had been returned to the crown appointed governorship of Virginia as a reward for his role in bringing Charles 2nd back to the British throne and he was, also, a member of the group of eight noblemen who had been given the Carolina charter. The Lords’ Proprietors who had financial interests in the other American colonies believed that Berkeley could promote migration into Carolina. In 1662, a group from New England explored around the Cape Fear area but left after staying about six months. In 1663, William Hilton was commissioned by a group in Barbados to explore the area, but they could not reach agreement with the Lords’ Proprietors. In 1665, a group from Barbados including Sir John Yeamans, John Vassall and Robert Sandford established Charles Town on the Cape Fear River, but abandoned the settlement in 1667. Finally, in 1670 the Lords’ Proprietors succeeded in establishing a permanent colony at Charleston in present-day South Carolina.
With the only population of the colony of Carolina in the Albemarle area, Sir William Berkeley, the governor of Virginia, appointed William Drummond as the first governor in 1664. Drummond had been born and educated in Scotland. He came to the Virginia colony as an indentured servant, although after arriving he conspired with other indentures to run away. His plan was discovered, for which he received a public flogging and an extension of his indentured time. But by 1650, he had improved his situation, married and had children, became an attorney, merchant, Presbyterian clergyman and a large land owner. By all accounts he was an efficient and effective governor and the Albemarle colony began to grow. Drummond’s term ended in 1667. About ten years later he would become a follower of Nathaniel Bacon and a supporter of Bacon’s Rebellion. After Sir William Berkeley put down the Rebellion, he had Drummond arrested, tried for treason, being found guilty, he was hung to death on the same day.
The next governor of Albemarle appointed in 1667 was Samuel Stephens who pushed for a new law with incentives that would attract settlers. It gave newcomers a one year tax exemption, outlawed any debts they had elsewhere and gave them a five year protection against any law suit brought by anyone for any cause outside of the colony. As you can imagine, like June bugs to a light bulb, they came and soon the Albemarle settlement came to be known in Virginia as “Rogues’ Harbor”.
Over the next forty years the North Carolina colony grew slowly. The barrier islands along the coast and the wetlands were obstacles to the establishment of a deep water port for shipping, so trade was inhibited. The storms and hurricanes that frequented the area did not encourage any great expense in building permanent structures. The Great Dismal Swamp, the fall line rapids and the south running rivers of the Piedmont Plateau were all hindrances to migration from the eastern coastal area into the Piedmont.
The Carolina colony was officially split between north and south in 1712 for the purposes of administrative management. The two settlements in Carolina were the Albemarle region in the north and the Charleston region in the south. In 1729 when the last of the Lords’ Proprietors, who by now were the heirs of the original group of eight, finalized the deal that gave up ownership to the Crown, the heir of Sir George Carteret, his great-grandson John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, decided he wasn’t interested in selling his inheritance, so he negotiated with the Crown to retain his one-eighth share with his agreement he would not participate in the government. The boundary for his charter was a sixty mile wide strip of land along the North Carolina/Virginia border known as the Granville District. The land was passed down to his son, Robert, who died in 1776. After the Revolution, the Carteret family was compensated for the loss of the land by the new American government.
In the mid-1720s, South Carolinians began to migrate into the Cape Fear River area. It began with small farmers looking for new land as the settlement of the South Carolina coastal area spread north. That was quickly followed by planters who began to accumulate large tracts of land for pine plantations that provided the lumber and naval stores for Britain’s expanding Navy. The South Carolinians also brought their slaves. Eventually, rice plantations developed. But the northern part of Carolina resembled Virginia, used Virginia ports and Virginia money while the southern part with its plantation culture resembled the Low Country of South Carolina. By the 1730s a steady stream of immigrants were beginning to flow into North Carolina. Welsh settlers moved in along the northeast Cape Fear River early in that decade. In 1732, Highland Scots began to move into the Cape Fear backcountry. Cape Fear was navigable by seagoing vessels for over twenty miles upstream. At that point it was necessary to disembark at Brunswick Town and again at Wilmington. But the arriving Highlanders preferred the Wilmington site because it placed them closer to the backcountry. After landing, they transferred their belongings to longboats, canoes, and rafts and made their way up the Cape Fear River. Ninety miles upstream, at the site of present-day Fayetteville, they debarked for the last time and built their homesteads.
September 29, 1748, a petition was presented to the North Carolina Governor’s Council proposing its creation and laying out the boundaries, “divided and distinguished from Bladen County by little Peedee River to the head of the main branch thereof and then by a line to be run equal distance from Haw River and Great Peedee River and until another county be erected to the westward or northward of this new county all the inhabitants to the westward of the aforementioned dividing line shall belong and appertain to Anson County.” The petition also gives us an idea of the population density in this vast geographic area as ”between two and three hundred white tithables” and states the nearest courthouse in Bladen was more than ”one hundred miles distant from the nearest inhabitants of Peedee; and that at some seasons of the year, the roads between are very bad, if not impracticable.”
The first record that we do find for Burlingham after his transportation to South Carolina is the October 27, 1745 baptism of his three children in the Prince Frederick’s Parish register book. It can tell us some things.
For example, at the time of baptisms Martha was seven years old, born March 1, 1738, Burlingham Jr. was four years old, born October 13, 1741, and Walter was two years old, born March 20, 1743. Based on Martha’s birth year, it appears Burlingham married soon after his liberty was restored, within about a year. Martha appears to be his first born child, but that name does not appear as a family name in the parish register records back in Norfolk, England, so we have no way of knowing if she was someone’s namesake. He named his second child, Burlingham, which appears to be after himself and the third child, Walter, after his father. There is no entry in the Prince Frederick’s Parish register for his assumed fourth child, George Lounsdell. But George was the name of his half-uncle, a son of his grandfather’s second marriage, who was about two years younger than Burlingham. Given their ages, they were likely cohorts, so it’s probable that Burlingham named his son George after his younger Uncle George. Since the parish register does not include a baptism for George Lounsdell in 1745, we can assume he was born after that date. But the source for the name Lounsdell is still a mystery. Was it the family name of Elizabeth, Burlingham’s wife? Or was it the name of some person who had left their impression on his life? Those questions may never be answered, but the name appears to have been of some significance as is evidenced in the North Carolina records. I think another safe assumption is that since all three children were baptized on the same day, and they ranged in ages from seven to two years old, Burlingham and Elizabeth Rudd weren’t necessarily adherents to the Church of England or their children would have already been baptized according to that tradition. I would guess the motivation for the baptisms was the pending migration into the wilderness of the North Carolina frontier and not wanting to expose their children to the dangers that lurked there without making sure their souls were secure in the afterlife. My guess is Burlingham and Elizabeth left South Carolina shortly after the baptisms.
The distance from Georgetown in Prince Frederick’s Parish, which is an approximation of where they lived in South Carolina at the time, and the Morven area on the North Carolina border, near the location where Burlingham Rudd claimed his land, is approximately 125 miles up the Great Pee Dee River to the border. I would guess that by horseback, it was about a three or four day trip. So, since this wasn’t a long migration, I’d guess that Burlingham had already began the clear a homestead and built a first dwelling before the family moved to Jones Creek and, as I said, the family likely was living on the land for a while before he made the trip to the courthouse in Bladen to register his claim. Remember, the petition that formed Anson out of Bladen said the courthouse was over 100 miles away from the Pee Dee River settlement and the trail was often not passable in certain times of the year. That distance, too by horseback, would be about three days there and three days back under good conditions, about a week that he would be away from his family and they would be subject to the dangers of the forest. Neighbors were far and few between back then, when Anson was new and the Pee Dee River area was being settled.
Henry William Elson wrote about all thirteen colonies in his History of the United States of America and he had this to say about North Carolina.
Of all the thirteen colonies, North Carolina was the least commercial, the most provincial, the farthest removed from European influences, and its wild forest life the most unrestrained. Every colony had its frontier, its borderland between civilization and savagery; but North Carolina was composed entirely of frontier. The people were impatient of legal restraints and averse to paying taxes; but their moral and religious standard was not below that of other colonies. Their freedom was the freedom of the Indian, or of the wild animal, not that of the criminal and the outlaw. Here truly was life in the primeval forest, at the core of Nature's heart. There were no cities, scarcely villages. The people were farmers or woodmen; they lived apart, scattered through the wilderness; their highways were the rivers and bays, and their homes were connected by narrow trails winding among the trees. Yet the people were happy in their freedom and contented with their lonely isolation.
Burlingham Rudd was twenty-one years old when he arrived in Charleston, South Carolina and he was about thirty when he completed his indenture. In October 1745 when he baptized his children, he was thirty-seven years old and had three kids who needed a future that would not be found in Charleston. And considering the cultural and societal conditions in Charleston at the time, this move was also the opportunity for a fresh start for himself and Elizabeth as well. We’re actually very fortunate that he didn’t change his name like many others who were sentenced to transportation and then disappear into colonial history. The Rudd family was among the original founders of the Pee Dee River settlement. They will remain in Anson County for approximately forty years.