June 27, 2006

My Mary Jones Brickwall

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I apologize for the delay in continuing my story about Our Progenitor, Burlingham Rudd. It was indeed an unplanned interruption but you know how if goes when one of your brickwalls starts to come down. Like a birddog on a scent, you have to take off and follow it to its conclusion. And as in most cases of brickwalls, you jump over one and find others, but just getting over that first one is reason enough for celebration.

I want to thank Denise and Barb for getting me over my Mary Jones brickwall. I’m planning on putting together a narrative for later once we get some more information and some of the documentation arrives, but I’d like to briefly tell you a little bit about where I’ve been.

Photobucket - Video and Image HostingMary Jones (1825-1869) was Elias Trowell Rudd’s (1819-1895) first wife and the mother of my great great-grandfather, Zenothan Miles Rudd (1860-1938), who was a twin to Zeno Miner Rudd (1860-1935). I had in my database that her father was named John Edmond Jones with a little information about him and that her mother was Sarah Nancy Vaughan but had no more information on her. I also had in my database that John Edmond Jones’ father was the Reverend Charles Shephard Vincent Jones of SC.

In a very weird twist, it turns out that the information needed to get over the Charles Shephard Vincent Jones brickwall was contained in a letter written some years ago whose author was a Jones researcher writing in response to an inquiry from a Rudd researcher and in more recent years that letter had ended up in the hands of a third person. The contents of the letter was revealed to me because of Denise and Barb and I can not thank them enough!

Charles Shephard Vincent Jones is the son of Edmond Jones of Colleton Co. SC. He served in the Salt Catcher Volunteer Co. (local militia) during the lead up to the American Revolution. His wife was most likely a Shephard of Beaufort Co. SC.

Sarah Nancy Vaughan’s father was Michael Vaughan, who was of Scottish descent and can be found in the 1830 Walton Co. FL census. Michael and Charles both moved their families to the Euchee Valley where there was a Scottish settlement.

As a added bonus, I never knew Mary Jones was of Scottish descent.

June 20, 2006

Who was Elizabeth Rudd?

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As most of us I think, a lot of “Rudd Cousins” have shared with me many items related to the research of our progenitor. Among those things, I have two items that were done by previous researchers that mention this deed. One of the items is what appears to be a listing of documents and in the margin to the side of this Elizabeth Rudd deed there is a notation that questions if this Elizabeth was the wife of Burlingham 1st.

I don’t think so based on what we now know. The record of the Prince Frederick’s Parish baptism list Martha as born in 1738-9 and as I discussed in Burlingham Rudd vs Burlingham Rudd, there is an indication that George Lounsdell was born before Martha (1738/9). So if Burlingham 1st married wife, Elizabeth, by 1735 and she was at least 18 years old, she would be 82 years old in 1801. I think it’s more likely she’s died by this time. Furthermore, I can’t imagine why George Lounsdell’s mother would have a deed to 100 areas at Old Mill Creek when she would of had her own land upon the death of Burlingham 1st. That last 100 acres was sold by Burlingham 2nd in March 1792.

The other item that was shared with me is a very well written thesis with a lot of helpful information and the conclusion is drawn that this Elizabeth Rudd is the daughter of Burlingham 2nd.

As I’ve said before, the evidence doesn’t support the assumption that the Burlingham Rudd in the 1800 Charelston census is Burlingham 2nd. And there is very strong indication that the Burlingham Rudd who married the widow Mary Whaley is NOT Burlingham 2nd. In the Last Will and Testament of that Burlingham Rudd in St. James Goose Creek he names his daughter, Elizabeth Smith, as his executrix in 1827. So the assumption was made that Elizabeth Rudd and Elizabeth Smith were the same person. And I guess that’s possible but it ignores the fact that this land was origionally granted to George Lounsdell Rudd not Burlingham 2nd.

And that fact was the first thing I noticed when I began to transcribe this deed. This 100 acre tract of land that Elizabeth Rudd is selling to George L. Rudd in 1801 is land that was granted to George Lounsdell Rudd on October 24, 1782. So that raises the question, how did she acquire this land? I’ve not found a deed that documents the land was transferred to her, but she must legally own it if she is legally deeding it back to George Lounsdell. Another question is why is she selling the land?

The second thing I noticed is this deed is witnessed by Burlingham Rudd, who SIGNS his name, and James Rudd, who makes his mark “X”. Now, as I’ve discussed in The Burlingham Rudd who married the Widow Mary Whaley, Burlingham 2nd could not write his name, all his deeds in Anson County, North Carolina bear his mark “X”.

The Burlingham Rudd of St. James Goose Creek, Charleston, South Carolina who married the widow Mary Whaley signs all of those documents with his legal signature. And the Burlingham Rudd who sells land at Four Hole Swamp in 1814 to William H. Harrall signs his legal signature. That land can be tracked back to this Burlingham’s 1813 grant and 1808 survey. Now we have a Burlingham Rudd who appears to be in Charleston who signs his legal signature in 1801 on this Elizabeth Rudd deed. I’m thinking these are the same man and we now can document his presence in Charleston as early as 1801.

Another interesting thing about this deed. The James Rudd who signs his mark as a witness is most likely the son of George Lounsdell Rudd mentioned in the 1797 Screven County, Georgia Deed of Gift Forwarding Stock.

If you missed my critique of that document, you can read it HERE.

What’s of particular interest is that if this is James, the son of George Lounsdell, he wasn’t “of age” in 1797 but by 1801 he is witness to a deed. Did James become “of age” in four years?

Lastly, this deed was then proven in the Anson County July Session of the Court in 1803 by Burlingham Rudd who testifies he was the witness to the deed. The very well written thesis I mentioned earlier draws the conclusion that this is Burlingham 3rd but there is no evidence of that. Actually the statement ...
Then the within deed was duly proven in open court by the oath of Burlingham Rudd as witness thereto ordered to be registered.
... indicates that it was the same Burlingham Rudd who witnessed the deed and he then appeared in the Anson County July Session in 1803. The Anson County land deeds reveal that the Burlingham we called 3rd, could not sign his name, he uses the mark "X".

I think that we have another clue here in this statement, almost two years after Elizabeth sells the land to George Lounsdell the deed is then proven in Anson. Well, we know that the 1797 Screven County, Georgia Deed of Gift Fowarding Stock was recorded in Charleston in 1804, so this statement in this Elizabeth Rudd deed seems to indicate that George Lounsdell Rudd died by July 1803 and this deed was proven in Anson as a part of his estate settlement probably because the land was going to be sold. It also makes me wonder if the Burlingham Rudd who witnessed this deed and took it to Anson, was also designated the executor of George Lounsdell’s estate. I’ve always wondered why we have never found any record of a Last Will and Testament for George Lounsdell Rudd. Now I think it’s because he died unexpectedly. Even if he had been first born child of Burlingham 1st, born about 1735-1737, he would have been only 66-68 years old in 1803. I know that sounds old for that day and time, but not from what we know of the longevity of Rudd men back in those days.

Let’s go back to the language in the deed that identifies the location of the land.
beginning at a stake two pines and black jack pointers near Haley’s Road and runs So. 30 Et. 150 poles crossing said Road to a pine and two white oaks and a pine pointers then No. 60 Et. 115 poles crossing a branch of the Old Mill Creek to a stake then No. 30 Wt. 150 poles to a stake then So. 60 Wt. 115 poles crossing the road to the first station
The Warrant from the land office to the surveyor gives us a little more information about the location of the land.

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Notice is says “on the West side of the Creek”. Mill Creek runs from the Great Pee Dee River to the west and very near the border between Anson County in North Carolina and Chesterfield County in South Carolina and according to this map (which is a modern day map and the creek may have changed) you will see the stretch of the creek that turns north then south that would allow for a west side.

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Click for Expanded View of Map

On the Survey you’ll see that one of the chainers was Burlingham Rudd, Jr. A chainer is someone who carries the chains for the surveyor in the type of measurement detailed in the deed. I think it’s likely that since this was July 27, 1781 and in Anson County, this is Burlingham 2nd, he would have been about 40 years old at the time. And if so, his calling himself Jr. would indicate that Burlingham 1st was still alive at the time of this survey.

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We can see by the documentation provided on the cover sheet to the grant by which this land was acquired by George Lounsdell Rudd that he entered the land into the land office entry book on October 17, 1778. The grant was issued October 24, 1782.

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Elizabeth Rudd then sells the land back to George Lounsdell on August 10, 1801, almost 19 years after the issue date. So sometime between 1782 and 1801, Elizabeth Rudd acquired the land from George Lounsdell. She obviously is selling the land because she no longer has any use for it. There’s no way of knowing where this deed was actually physically prepared but my impression is that it was drafted in South Carolina probably in St. James Goose Creek since that is where George Lounsdell had relocated his family by 1800. That’s where James Rudd is located and most likely the Burlingham Rudd that is the other witness is located there as well. I wonder if Elizabeth Rudd had relocated there also.

What are the possibilities of her relationship to George Lounsdell and why would she have possession of this 100 acre tract of land granted to him in 1782?

Is Elizabeth Rudd ...

1) An unmarried daughter of George Lounsdell?

2) An unmarried sister of George Lounsdell?

3) The widow of a son of George Lounsdell?

4) An unmarried niece of George Lounsdell and perhaps her father, his brother, died?

5) The widow of a brother of George Lounsdell?

But like I said earlier, I think we can rule out that this Elizabeth is George Lounsdell’s mother. Perhaps she is the daughter of the Burlingham who married Mary Whaley (who, by the way, is not Burlingham 2nd), if that Burlingham is also directly related to George Lounsdell and this land somehow went from George Lounsdell to the Burlingham who married the widow Mary Whaley to this Elizabeth Rudd.

I would be remiss if I didn’t include another twist to our mystery. It surely adds to the confusion, but I don’t think we should exclude information when we’re trying to work through an analysis. I think that type of practice has not served us well in understanding the larger family and how we all fit together.

Based on the scale on this map of 1”=3 miles, that stretch of Mill Creek where it turns north and then south that would allow for a “west side of the creek” and is approximately 6 miles from the NC SC border. In the 1800 Chesterfield, South Carolina census we have yet another Burlingham Rudd.

He is indexed in the 1800 Census Index Book as Reed, but he’s Rudd as you can clearly see. You’ll notice this Burlingham says he is born between 1755 and 1774, a wife in his same age group and what appear to be three daughters, the oldest at least 16 years old. So working backwards, in 1800 a 16 year old daughter was born in 1784 and if her father was at least (18 when he married and) 19 at the time of her birth, he would have been born about 1765, if she is older or he’s older then he’s born before 1765.

This gives us another unidentified Burlingham who appears to be a son of a son of Burlingham 1st so we have three 1800 Burlingham Rudd households!

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I’m beginning to believe the only way to reconstruct the early family in Anson will be to gather as many land deeds for adjoining property as possible and buy the software that will plot the land using the meters and bounds system. We’re lucky that the Anson County land records include that information.

And Thanks Cousin Rodney for the Anson County Map!!

June 18, 2006

Burlingham Rudd vs Burlingham Rudd

I mean … really … how many Burlinghams can one family take?

On one hand we are very fortunate that our progenitor bore the given name Burlingham. That name made him identifiable as we sorted through the Rudd families in North Carolina and Virginia. But on the other hand, the name does make it difficult to clearly define the lines back to Burlingham Rudd 1st.

It seems each generation, at least through 1820, named a son Burlingham Rudd. That’s almost a hundred years after the first Burlingham Rudd touched the ground in the American colonies. Can you just imagine what the family gatherings were like? No wonder some of them changed their names to Burrel and Burwell and Burrelham.

On the positive side, it does give us the clue we need to identify the lines of the family as it grew by generations. Unfortunately, it also makes it difficult to clearly establish those lines. One thing that has become clear to me, as I became more intrigued by discoveries, that in turn raised more questions, is that we don’t really know how many sons Burlingham 1st had and therefore, we don’t know how many second generation lines there are. That lack of knowledge appears to be the major missing link for us. The only record we have that identifies the known children of Burlingham 1st is the Prince Frederick’s Parish baptism record that says:

Burlingham Rudd and wife Elizabeth baptized three children on October 27, 1745: Martha born: March 1, 1738/9; Burlingham born: October 13, 1741; Walter born: March 20, 1743.

We have a land deed in North Carolina that confirms that Burlingham Rudd Sr. sold 200 acres of his original 300 acre grant to Burlingham Rudd Jr. in 1757.

That’s the extent of the evidence we have about his children. It is assumed that George Lounsdell Rudd is a son of Burlingham 1st. But there is no evidence of that either. He could be a brother or a nephew. The geographic evidence of their presence in the same location in Anson Co., NC and the appearance of the name Burlingham in the Charleston, SC records provides us with strong circumstantial evidence that they have a family relationship.

It’s curious how you develop an impression about your ancestors when you begin to look at the evidence they left behind and move beyond the census records into the social structure they moved around in, who their neighbors were, who witnessed their legal documents, the extent and content of their material possessions, how much land they owned and how often they bought and sold that land, etc. For example, my impression is that we have two very distinct family groups in South Carolina that developed after they migrated out of North Carolina, one group in Charleston at Four Holes Swamp on the Charleston/Colleton border and another group in Barnwell at the Lower Three Runs near the Savannah River.

I confess I do have two curiosities about George Lounsdell that I will probably never resolve. First is his name, he always used his entire name or he always included his middle initial. As a matter of fact, he used “L” as his mark. Where did the name Lounsdell come from? Did his siblings have middle names too? Seems to me that if parents gave one child a middle name they would tend to give middle names to other children. Maybe they did and that’s what adds to the confusion in tracking them from one census to another. Some of them seem to switch from using one name in one census year to using another name in the next census year.

The other curiosity I have about George Lounsdell is with all the Burlinghams in every generation for a hundred years, why didn’t George Lounsdell have a son named Burlingham? Maybe he did and we just aren’t aware of it because sorting through the Burlinghams is very difficult.

My ultimate goal when I started this investigation into the early family, that generation (be it one or two) between Burlingham 1st and Elias David Rudd, was to discover who Elias David’s father actually was. I began with the theory that his father was George Lounsdell because that’s what I had been told and that’s what a lot of Elias David’s descendents believe. Along the way, as additional pieces of information revealed themselves, that theory began to look weak. Now, I’m convinced Elias David’s father, and subsequently George Washington’s, was not George Lounsdell Rudd Sr. as I outlined in George L. Rudd ~ Deed of Gift Forwarding Stock.

As I mentioned earlier, I do have the distinct impression that Elias David’s parentage lies with the Rudd clan in Barnwell Co., SC so I’ve undertaken a great deal of research into all the records I could find for both Barnwell and Beaufort. I’ve got a feeling the key to our mystery lies in the dilemma of having two 1800 Burlingham Rudd males who both say they were born by 1755. That would indicate second generation or very early third generation. So I want to focus today on sorting out these two Burlinghams:

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A long time ago when this discovery was made by a previous researcher, the theory was put forth that these were the same man who had relocated during the census year. Well, evidently that theory was not based on knowing when the census was actually taken. All I’ve been able to discern is that the final census was compiled and certified in April 1801. The individual districts including Barnwell and Charleston do not have a date on them. So let’s review what I discussed earlier in the posting, The Census Taker. Generally, the census was taken during the early summer months, June and July, by persons hired to survey the county and gather the information. That information was then transcribed by someone from those notes, which were written with a quill pen. There were three copies made at the time of the transcription. This certainly took a period of time to complete this entire process. So it might be possible that these two Burlinghams are the same person, if the households didn’t look so different. I think another reason there was an assumption about these two entries is that it appeared there were no Rudd families left in Barnwell County in 1810 and 1820 because the census index books that were available at that time lists them as Reed. That ol’ Rud/Reed problem again!! But as I’ve shown you, the Rudd families are clearly identifiable as remaining in Barnwell at least through the 1830 census.

Unless Burlingham 1st named two sons after himself, let’s start with the theory that one of these men is Burlingham 2nd and the other one is a son of a son of Burlingham 1st, in other words, a grandson. In order for that grandson to be 45+ in 1800 he would be born by 1755 or earlier. That would mean his father being at least 16 years old when he was born would be himself born by 1739 or earlier. The baptismal records document that Burlingham 2nd was born on October 13, 1741 and he had a brother named Walter who was born on March 20, 1743. The first child listed is Martha born on March 1, 1738/9. So the father of this other Burlingham Rudd in the 1800 census was born before Martha.

When I was researching the punishment I outlined in Sentenced to Transportation used by the Old Bailey Court in England I discovered that Burlingham 1st was indeed an indentured convict not an indentured servant. A contractor was engaged by the Court to transport criminals for a fee and they in turn then sold those indentures upon arrival in the colonies. Very much like the practice of slavery, only with a limit on the number of years based on the classification of the crime. Most likely Burlingham 1st had a seven year indenture placed on him. The restrictions placed on him would be dictated by his owner. That probably included not being allowed to marry and raise a family because the point of his indenture was to work for his owner and all of the money he made from his labor belonged to his owner. The record says Burlingham Rudd was sentenced in the summer of 1727 so let’s theorize he arrived about September or October 1727 and was sold about the same time. That would mean he would have completed his indenture toward the end of 1734. If he married Elizabeth after his indenture was completed they could have had a child by 1735 and another one in 1737, then maybe Martha in 1738/9, Burlingham 2nd in 1741 and Walter in 1743. That’s every two years. So it’s possible that Burlingham 1st had at least two children before those documented in the baptismal records at Prince Frederick’s Parish and one of these children is the father of the other Burlingham in the 1800 census.

Another possibility is that one of these 1800 Burlingham Rudd males is Burlingham 2nd and the other is his son but it wouldn’t be the one we all refer to as Burlingham 3rd because he’s going to leave Anson for Tennessee. But I want to remind you about what I revealed to you in the previous posting The Burlingham Rudd who married the Widow Mary Whaley; Burlingham 2nd signs his mark as “X” and the Burlingham Rudd, Sr. in Anson that bought land in January 1790 that he sells to Burlingham Rudd, Jr. in July 1793 signed the deed with his mark “B”. That land listed William Vaughn as an adjacent land owner. I think this is the Burlingham Sr. and the Burlingham Jr. in the 1790 Anson Co., NC census and might not necessarily be Burlingham 2nd.

Another interesting bit of information goes back to the January 1757 sale of 200 acres of his original grant for 200 pounds sterling from Burlingham 1st to Burlingham 2nd, who would have been only 15 years and 3 months old at the time. Was that because he was getting married or starting a family. The dates would only be off 2 years, 1757 instead of 1755.

Lastly, we don’t really know when George Lounsdell was born. He doesn’t appear in the Prince Frederick Parish record, so there evidently was an assumption made he was born after 1745. Maybe he wasn’t. If he was born before Martha, about 1735-7, he very well could have had a son that could be one of those 1800 Burlingham Rudd males. One indication of his potential birth year lies in the North Carolina land grant issued to him on April 20, 1762 for 150 acres on Jones Creek that he named Lounsdell’s Folly. The land was surveyed for him on June 6, 1759. According to the process I’ve researched for the issuing of land grants in the North Carolina colony, George Lounsdell would first apply for the land grant, then have it surveyed, then have the survey filed in order for the grant to be issued. So, if he was at least 16 years old at the time of the application, he would have been born by 1743, but that’s when Walter was born. If he was at least 21 years old, then he would have been born by 1738 and that would be before Martha. One thing that seems clear is that George Lounsdell was not born after 1743 as he applied for a land grant that was surveyed in his name.

Now, let’s recap.

We have two Burlingham Rudd males in the 1800 census, one in Barnwell and one in Charleston. Both say they were born by 1755.

One of them is Burlingham 2nd and the other is:

1) The son of an unknown son of Burlingham 1st born before Martha was born in 1739.

2) The son of Burlingham 2nd with the possibility that the one we refer to as Burlingham 3rd is not his son.

3) The son of George Lounsdell Rudd.

As I pointed out in our theory, one of these households is likely Burlingham 2nd the other is someone else. It’s not possible to tell by the makeup of the households which one is which. But let’s look closer at the age of these two households. Based on that someone else being the child of someone born about 1735-37, the head of that household is probably not much older than 45 years old, born between 1751-55

1800 Charleston, Burlingham Rudd, b. bef. 1755:
1m 45+ (b. bef. 1755)
1f 45+ (b. bef. 1755)
2m 16/26 (b. 1774-1784)
1f 10/16 (b. 1784-1790)
1m -10 (b. 1790-1800)

1800 Barnwell, Burlingham Rudd, b. bef. 1755:
1m 45+ (b. bef. 1755),
1f 45+ (b. bef. 1755)
1f 26/45 (1755-1774)
1m 16/26 (b. 1774-1784)
1m 10/16 (b. 1784-1790)

The Charleston household has 4 children with the last one under the age of ten years. Either these children belong to the 45 and older adults or it's possible the 10/16 years old female is a wife to one of the 16/26 years old males and the under 10 years old male is their child.

In the Barnwell household, either the children listed belong to the 45 and older adults and the 26/45 female could be an unmarried daughter, or she is a sister (or sister-in-law) or a widow (daughter-in-law) and those are her children. Regardless, the household doesn’t have a child under the age of ten years old.

The Barnwell household looks to be the older of the two.

June 17, 2006

The Burlingham Rudd who married the Widow Mary Whaley

Photobucket - Video and Image HostingHave you ever wondered why a widow who was probably in her mid to late 40’s would marry an 86 year old man? Especially, when she came from a socially recognized family and her husband left her an estate. I doubt it was for the “conjugal perks” of marriage. Although William Wesley Rudd, oldest son of Elias David Rudd, might undermine my theory! But that’s another story for later.

From the first time I was told that Burlingham Rudd 2nd married the widow Mary Whaley, I thought it to be a rather curious arrangement. I think it’s one of those old assumptions where no one actually took a look at the documentation because it didn’t really matter. It didn’t affect anyone’s generational line. Maybe they didn’t have the information that is available today or maybe they just didn’t find it. But I thought it was an interesting story and from time to time I had been contacted by Whaley researchers who also had the same information and never really questioned it. The one document that most of us had was the Inventory of the Estate of Burlingham Rudd of Goose Creek. It’s a very interesting accounting of his material possessions and provides us with a glimmer into what his life was like back in 1836 Charleston, South Carolina.

But there are other documents pertaining to the marriage between Burlingham Rudd of St. James Goose Creek and Mary Whaley, widow of George Powell Whaley, Sr. also of St. James Goose Creek. One of those documents is the Last Will and Testament of Burlingham Rudd signed and sealed with his legal signature on October 30, 1827.

Another document is a Pre-Nuptial Marriage Contract between Burlingham Rudd and Mary Whaley dated December 26, 1826 which is signed by Burlingham Rudd with his legal signature and Mary Whaley makes her mark “X”. Contained in that document is the sworn testimony of the witness G. Crawford who says he and the other witnesses were present and saw “Burlingham Rudd subscribe his name and Mary Whaley subscribe her mark on this act”.

There is another document that was created during their marriage, a Deed of Gift from Mary (Whaley) Rudd to Susannah Whaley, her daughter, dated October 15, 1829 where Burrel Rudd is one of the witnesses and signs his name, Burrel Rudd. Is this her husband, Burlingham Rudd, who now calls himself Burrel? I think it’s very likely.

The point is that the Burlingham Rudd that married the widow Mary Whaley could write his name. This will be a very important clue to his identity ... not who he is, but who he is not.

I have found and transcribed three land surveys, two land grants and one deed of sale in the name of Burlingham Rudd of St. James Goose Creek. You can view them all HERE. It’s not clear if they are all the same person but on the one deed of sale from Burlingham Rudd to William H. Harrall on April 5, 1814, Burlingham Rudd signs his legal signature. This land was acquired by grant on September 6, 1813 after it had been surveyed on March 4, 1808. The survey plat notes that adjacent land was owned by the Late George Lounsdale Rudd. George Lounsdale died around 1804.

Now I’ll take you back to Anson County, North Carolina and give you a brief review of those land deeds of sale that bear the Burlingham Rudd name as seller which requires a signature or mark to seal the deal. I apologize, I still need to transcribe those deed and grant and post them for you to see.

The original April 11, 1749 land grant of 300 acres in Anson Co., NC to Burlingham Rudd 1st changes hands quite frequently, which I must say peaks my curiosity but I’ll wait to discuss that at another time.

Item 1:
October 12, 1750, 40 acres from Burlingham Rudd to John Red. Burlingham Rudd signs his name.

Item 2:
1750, same tract of land not defined by acres, John Read to James Steward. Burlingham Rudd is a witness and signs his name.

Item 3:
(April 15, 1751, the same tract of land returns to Burlingham Rudd sold by James Steward.)

Item 4:
January 26, 1757, 200 acres of the original grant, Burlingham Rudd, Sr. to Burlingham Rudd, Jr (2nd). Burlingham Rudd Sr. signs his name.

Item 5:
October 20, 1788, one tract of the original grant not defined by acres, Burlingham Rudd, Jr. (2nd) to Lewis Lanier. Burlingham Rudd makes his mark “X”.

Item 6:
March 11, 1792, 100 acres of the original grant, Burlingham Rudd (2nd) to James Lanford. Burlingham Rudd makes his mark “X”.
All of the above transactions involve the same land. In Item 1-3, 40 acres of the original 300 acre grant to Burlingham 1st change ownership and is eventually sold back to Burlingham 1st.

In Item 4, Burlingham 1st sells 200 of his 300 acres to Burlingham 2nd for 20 pounds sterling. What is very strange to me is that Burlingham 2nd would have been only 15 years and 3 months old at the time and 20 pounds sterling is a lot of money. Where did Burlingham 2nd get so much money at such a young age? Why did his father sell him the land at such a young age? It’s a mystery we’ll have to tackle later.

Item 5, appears to be the same land that Burlingham 2nd bought from his father and he sells it to Lewis Lanier in 1788. This is the deed that includes access to the Rudd graveyards on the property. I think Burlingham 1st has died by this date.

Item 6, appears to be the other 100 acres of the original 300 acre land grant to Burlingham 1st. Apparently Burlingham 2nd inherited the land. I think he must have been living on this tract and he sells it in 1792 in preparation for his move from Anson Co., NC.

In Item 1-4, Burlingham 1st signs his legal signature. Yes! He could write his name. But in Item 5 and 6, Burlingham 2nd makes his mark “X”. He could not write his name.

Item 7:
January 18, 1790, 2 tracts of 100 and 150 acres, purchased for Burlingham Rudd from the Sheriff thru his friend, Malachi Watts, at auction with Lewis Lanier as witness.

Item 8:
July 16, 1793, the same 2 tracts of land bought at the auction, from Burlingham Rudd, Sr. to Burlingham Rudd, Jr. Burlingham Rudd signs with his mark “B”.

Item 9:
September 9, 1793, the same 2 tracts of land, Burlingham Rudd to Robert Wallis. Burlingham Rudd makes his mark “X”.
In Item 7, it appears that Burlingham Rudd, perhaps 2nd, authorized a friend to bid for a parcel of land that contained 2 tracts at an auction in 1790. That land in Item 8 is then sold by Burlingham Sr. to Burlingham Jr. for one pound current money of North Carolina in July 1793. Burlingham Jr. then sells that same parcel of 2 tracts in Item 9 in September 1793.

I believe that Burlingham Jr. in these transactions is the one we have come to call Burlingham 3rd because the description of the land list William Vaughn as an adjacent land owner and in Item 9, William Vaughn is a witness on the deed. We know that Burlingham 3rd married Mary Vaughn. This William Vaughn appears to be her relative, perhaps father or brother. But what I’m not certain of is that the Burlingham Sr. in these transactions is the 2nd unless he has switched his legal mark to a “B”. This is really interesting because if this is not Burlingham 2nd with the “B” mark, then Burlingham 2nd is not the father of Burlingham 3rd!

So based on these documents, Burlingham 3rd signs with his mark “X”. He evidently could not write his name. And Burlingham 2nd signs with his mark “X” and perhaps later with his mark “B”. But either way, he could not write his name.

That brings us back to the Burlingham Rudd and Mary Whaley documents. I don’t think it’s likely that Burlingham 2nd went from signing with a mark “X” or even a mark “B” in North Carolina to being able to sign his entire name as a legal signature on documents in South Carolina.

In addition, it doesn’t appear that the Burlingham Rudd in Goose Creek with the 606 areas of land he acquired in 1808 and sold to William H. Harrall on April 5, 1814 is Burlingham 2nd unless he learned to write his name between 1793 and 1814. I think that’s unlikely.

In 1793 Burlingham 2nd is about 52 years old. In 1826 at the time of the pre-nuptial marriage contract with the widow Mary Whaley he would have been 85 years old. He would have been 86 when they married. He would have been 94 when he died. I think when we add to this that the Burlingham Rudd who married Mary Whaley could write his name and the documentation in North Carolina shows us that Burlingham 2nd could not write his name, I have to propose to you that it was not Burlingham Rudd 2nd who married the widow Mary Whaley.

But which Burlingham Rudd did marry the widow Mary Whaley?

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You’ll notice that when we look at the Rudd households in Charleston District, SC between 1800 and 1830 there is a Burlingham Rudd in 1800 that records his age as 45 years and older and a Burrel Rudd in 1820 that records his age as from 26 to 45, which I believe at the time meant he was at least 26 but not yet 45 years old. These are clearly not the same man. The one in 1800 might be Burlingham 2nd but that’s not clear either.

A while back I was working with Jean Hollars who is descended from the Eli Rudd (1815-abt 1859) and Maryanne Mizell line who were the parents of Hiram Rudd (1845-1910). Hiram married Anne Caroline Williams (1842-1910) who was the daughter of Reverend West Williams. Jean and I were trying to figure out who was the father of her Eli Rudd when she made what I think is a significant discovery that goes right to the question of which Burlingham Rudd married the widow Mary Whaley. She called to my attention that on the 1820 St. James Goose Creek census there is a woman head of household identified as Mrs. Valey living next door to Burrel Rudd. Look HERE.

Given that this census was transcribed as a copy, you can clearly see that by the way it looks, and given the accents that could have contributed to a “W” sounding like a “V”, and I have looked through the rest of the census and there is no other Valey listed. Also, the number and gender of the children in “Mrs. Valey’s” household match the number of children the widow had with George P. Whaley, Sr.

This is pretty strong circumstantial evidence that this is the Burlingham Rudd that married the widow Mary Whaley.

June 16, 2006

The Rudd Triangle

Photobucket - Video and Image HostingThe Rudd Triangle begins to form in Stewart Co., GA. where two sons of Elias David and Fannie Rudd were married; William Wesley to Christiana Williamson on January 20, 1835 and Seth Jackson to Nancy A. Rudd on August 5, 1838. William Wesley and Christiana’s third son, William Elias (known to his family as Uncle Bill) was born on February 23, 1840 in Dale Co., AL. And in the book, The History of Stewart County, Georgia, Volume 1, we have Elias David recorded as a buyer at an estate sale for Samuel Williams in that county in March 1839. So it would appear that Elias David, William Wesley and Seth Jackson took their families and migrated out of Stewart Co., GA between March 1839 and February 1840 because they all appear in the 1840 Dale Co., AL census. But Elias David and Fannie’s daughter, Rebecca Rudd who married Thomas Peak, remained behind and they are recorded in the 1840 Stewart Co., GA census.

Photobucket - Video and Image HostingAs I proposed in The Elias David and George Washington Reunion, I believe that George Washington and his family, including Burrell, David and Arthur, as well as other families from the Barnwell Co., SC area migrated into Georgia about 1835 and most likely took the Macon-Montgomery Trail which ran north of Stewart Co., GA instead of the Old Trading Path Trail even though that trail runs through Decatur Co., GA. One reason being in 1835 the Second Creek Indian War was in early stages along parts of that Trail and the other reason being Elias David had relocated to Stewart Co., GA by 1835. But regardless of how they got to Georgia, it appears that when James Dallas writes in his letter that his grandfather, George Washington, “settled in Georgia”, that place was most likely in Decatur County.

We see by the 1840 Decatur Co., GA census, Arthur Rudd with Rachel and David Rudd with Charlotte have also migrated. We don’t have much evidence of when they relocated to Decatur, but if we accept the birth place put forth for Arthur and Rachel’s sixth child, Mary J. Rudd, they were in Decatur Co., GA about 1837.

This lays out the beginning of The Rudd Triangle. One road leads to Dale Co., Alabama and the other road leads to Decatur Co., Georgia.

You’ll notice in Arthur’s household there is a female child that’s not accounted for among those thought to be Arthur’s children. And there’s an older female that appears to be someone’s mother. My guess is that the child is Arthur’s sister and the older woman is Arthur’s mother, Susannah Rudd. This appears to be the same women, named Susan Rudd in the 1850 Coffee Co., AL census living in Burrell Rudd’s household. Sadly, George Washington Rudd has died by the 1840 census.

Now, if we look back at the 1830 Barnwell Co., SC census for George Washington Rudd, we see there are four female children in his household; 1f 5/10, 2f 10/15 and 1f 15/20. It is likely five years later, in 1835 when the family migrated, that some of these female children migrated into Georgia with their parents or with their own new families. Also back in 1820 Barnwell Co., SC there is an unknown Rud who I can’t account for. The household doesn’t appear in the 1830 census anywhere. There are a lot of children in that household. It’s hard to determine what the relationship is with the 1820 George Rud household by the location on the census because this is one of those census that appear to be in part organized by placing all the R’s together, however not entirely throughout the entire census, but appears more according to be intervals so in this cluster of R’s this “unknown Rud” is on page 20a, line 32 and our George Rud is on page 20b, line 17. That’s pretty close to each other. Another interesting thing about this “unknown Rud” is that he list 2 involved in manufacturing which brings to mind the reported occupations of several of our Rudds, including blacksmith and shoemaker. There are probably descendants of more Rudds than we are aware of living in the Rudd Triangle today.

In the 1850 census we see these families on the move again with the exception of William Wesley who stays in Dale Co., AL. This move will connect the dots on the Rudd Triangle in what is a very interesting move.

By the 1850 census Arthur has moved from Decatur Co., GA to Coffee Co., AL. About 1844 Burrell, his brother, had married Frances Clay in Georgia and we can see by the reported birth locations of their children that the move was made after January 1845 and before August 1846. Burrell and his new family are documented in the 1850 Coffee Co., AL census.

Child # 1: James Dallas RUDD b: January 11, 1845 in Decatur Co., GA
Child #2: Martha Jane RUDD b: August 15, 1846 in Clintonville, Coffee Co., AL
By 1850 Elias David and Fannie have moved from Dale Co., AL to Gadsden Co., FL. Based on the reported birthdates and locations of two of their children they make their move to Gadsden Co., FL between April 29, 1847 which is the birthdate of Elias Trowell’s second child, Frances Caroline, and February 8, 1849, the birthdate of Samuel A.’s second child, Thersey Ann. They will spend the rest of their lives in Gadsden Co., FL.

At about the same time David and Charlotte leave Decatur Co., GA and move to Gadsden Co., FL.

It would appear that at the time of the 1850 census, none of the Rudds are living in Decatur Co., GA but I’m not so sure about that because as I pointed out in the 1840 census, there is an unknown female in Arthur’s household that appears to be his sister. Hopefully, one day we’ll find out who she is and who she married and just how many more Rudd descendants came from her.

The Rudd Triangle now reaches from Stewart Co., GA to Decatur Co., GA and Dale Co., AL then to Gadsden Co., FL and it was traveled again as recorded in the 1860 census when Arthur moves from Coffee Co., AL back to Decatur Co., GA, but his son, Raymond moves from Coffee Co., AL to Gadsden Co., FL, while Seth finally shows up in Webster Co., GA (which was carved out of Steward Co./Randoloh Co., GA). Seth has been lost in The Rudd Triangle for the last 20 years! Based on the reported birth locations of his children, he’s been bouncing around between Alabama and Georgia or he’s been living in Webster Co., GA all this time and his wife has been moving around when she is about to give birth, or the children are just confused on where they were born! It’s a very strange looking situation. But nonetheless in 1860, Seth Rudd is living in dwelling # 493 and Thomas Peak, widower of Rebecca Rudd, is living in dwelling # 483 with his new wife. Yes, Rebecca has died. She must have been less than 47 years old. By the 1860 census Fannie Rudd has also died. My information places her death on August 14, 1855; she was about 65 to 69 years old.

The only other move we see of this group of Rudds in the 1870 census is when Charlotte, widow of David, moves from Gadsden Co., FL to Decatur Co., GA. David has died by this census and it appears that Charlotte returns to David’s family in Decatur, namely Arthur Rudd. And Arthur's son, Raymond, moves from Gadsden Co., FL to Decatur Co., GA.

One thing that this Rudd Triangle tells us is that the family while each of them established their own homesteads, all remained in close proximity to each other. No doubt the roads in the Rudd Triangle were traveled often and I like to think that there were places along the way from one end to the other end where other family members or friends lived. So that when Fannie wanted to go visit her daughter, Rebecca, or her son, Seth, in Stewart Co., GA the trip was made easier by stopping along the way to visit or stay the night or have a meal with friends or family. I think this proximity and the mingling of the first cousins such as Burrell in Coffee Co., AL and Wesley in Dale Co., AL with Elias David leaving Dale Co., AL to Gadsden Co., FL also, unfortunately, contributed to the assumption that Burrell and Wesley were brothers. It also contributed to the belief that Elias David was Burrell’s father. We know now he wasn’t, but I do believe that after George Washington Rudd died, Uncle Elias did fill that “father void” for Burrell, just like he did for David. Elias David became the Rudd Family Patriarch.

You know how during the research process you collect little pieces of information, you don’t understand the significance but you can just feel there is a relationship somewhere, so you store that information away in the back of your mind. Then one day, without warning, WHAM!! There it is, the connection is revealed! You’re overwhelmed with excitement ... you’ve just got to tell somebody!

Well, that’s what happened for me when I discovered George Washington Rudd. During my search for the Elias David Rudd’s family, I had found Arthur and David Rudd in 1840 Decatur and then noted their movement in 1850; Arthur to Burrell and David to Elias David. I knew there had to be some connection but I didn’t understand it until George Washington Rudd was added to the picture. I just had to tell somebody that would understand the significance and be just as excited as I was. So I told my cousin Jacque Rudd and she understood. I’m so fortunate to have someone who shares the adventure with me and gets as much thrill from discover as I do.

By linking the two Rudd brothers, George Washington to Elias David, so much has been learned about the makeup, migration and connections with these families.

And in that light, there is just one other thing I want to put in the back of your mind, so to speak. It’s just a little thing that I noticed in the 1850 Coffee Co., AL census for Arthur Rudd and Rachel Spears. You see how Ramen Rudd is listed as the first child but the name Rudd is written again. Many times in my experience this indicated the person living in the household, even though they may have the same surname, they are not a member of the immediate family. And in this case, perhaps Ramen is Arthur’s child but not Rachel’s child? Or Ramen is not a child of either? This census doesn’t record relationships to the head of household. I’ve just got a feeling that this notation indicates something other than a son of Arthur and Rachel.

Let's just keep that in the back of our mind.

June 15, 2006

The Elias David and George Washington Reunion in Georgia

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Short of having personal writings from our ancestors such as diaries and letters it’s not possible for us to know what motivated them to migrate to new territory. But when I relate it to the number of times I’ve moved in my lifetime, it was always motivated by a quest to improve my conditions. Sometimes even going into the unknown held out a better promise than what you had. Sometimes the motivation is to give to your children a better opportunity than you thought they could have if you stayed where you were. Sometimes it’s the feeling of being smothered by urban sprawl. Sometimes it’s just an adventurous spirit. I think it must have been the same for our Rudd ancestors.

I’m not sure what was going on in Barnwell Co., SC in the mid to late 1830’s but in my reading about Beaufort County, the large plantations were moving towards the Savannah River. Rice had been introduced as a commercial crop that required fewer slaves. So I tend to think the smaller farmers were being squeezed by the larger plantations.

And we know that many of Elias David and George Washington Rudd’s neighbors had already left during the Mississippi Migrations and when Alabama Fever struck. Creek Nation Lands in Georgia were being ceded and Georgia had already completed several Land Lotteries by 1830. A new land was opening up to the West and without a doubt, both Elias David and George Washington knew the value of fertile land. The closer to a river, the better!

But whatever the reason, Elias David Rudd packed up his family and left Beaufort Co. SC and ventured into the forest of Jefferson Co., FL where he built a home and then left it behind to join his brother. Here is what I’ve discovered about their migration and my theory of how and when it happened.

Photobucket - Video and Image HostingFrom the census records where the children of Elias David report the State of their birth it appears that Elias David left Beaufort Co., SC after his daughter, Rachel, was born in September 1826 and was residing in Jefferson Co., FL for the 1830 census. All of his children born after Rachel will eventually say they were born in Georgia with the exception of the last child Sarah who says she was born in Florida about 1838. But we know from the 1840 Dale Co., AL census for Elias David and Fannie that Sarah was born in AL.

Other than these two censuses, 1830 and 1840, we only have two other documents during this time period that provide us with some insight into the migration of Elias David’s family, marriage records for William Wesley to Christiana Williamson, and Seth Jackson to Nancy A. Rudd, that surfaced in Stewart Co., GA thanks again to those who came before us and laid the ground work for research of the Rudd family or we may never have found them without some personal knowledge of who to be looking for because both are wrongly transcribed.

William Rudd not Reed, this is William Wesley Rudd

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S. J. Rudd not T. F. Rudd, this is Seth Jackson Rudd

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Because two of Elias David’s sons were married in Stewart Co., GA I always wondered if Elias David and Fannie had moved their family to that area and when. It would appear they made a detour through Stewart Co., GA on their way to Dale Co., AL. As I proposed in the previous posting, one of the reasons I think Elias David might have left that area of Florida was the Second Creek War which began around 1835. But why Stewart Co., GA? The answer to that question might be tied to when his brother, George Washington Rudd, left Barnwell Co., SC.

Let’s look back at the statement that James Dallas makes in his letter about his grandfather, George Washington Rudd.

"My grandfather Rudd's name was Geo. W. Rudd. He came from N.C. & settled in GA.”
There are two distinct clues in that statement. One, that George Washington was born in North Carolina which based on his likely birth years indicate he was born shortly before his Rudd line leaves North Carolina, and second, he eventually settled in Georgia. Curious that James Dallas doesn’t mention that George Washington lived in Barnwell Co., SC for most of his life. But I assume the word “settled” indicates the last place that George Washington lived. From this, we do know that George Washington did in fact leave Barnwell and migrated to Georgia.

It’s still not definite whether Arthur and David Rudd are the sons of George Washington and brothers to Burrell of Coffee Co., AL because we don’t have any clear evidence and perhaps never will. But what we do know is that back in 1830 Barnwell Co., SC not only is George Washington listed in the census, but as I have shown you, we can identify him as the brother of Elias David using the census records and the land survey with the land grants and deeds of sale for the land.

The only other Rudd we can identify in the 1830 Barnwell Co., SC census is Arthur Rudd. And in future censuses we will see Arthur and David Rudd’s migration pattern mirror that of our Elias David Rudd clan. So let’s go with the assumption that even if Arthur and David aren’t his sons, at least they all migrate together out of Barnwell and into Georgia.

We should assume that David Rudd and Charlotte were married previous to the birth of their first documented child, Thomas, in Georgia about 1835. There could have been other children who did not survive but we know from this that by about 1835 they were in Georgia. And once we develop a listing of the children for Arthur with their reported birth year and place we see child # 5, Rebecca A. Rudd, born about 1835 in South Carolina and child # 6, Mary J. Rudd, born about 1837 in Decatur County, Georgia. Allowing for the margin of one year, 1834 to 1836 seems to be the year of migration for the George Washington Rudd family out of Barnwell.

Now, let’s go one step further and add to this that William Rudd and Christiana Williamson, who says she was born in Georgia, were married on January 20, 1835 in Stewart Co., GA. Now, it’s possible that William Wesley who had been living in Jefferson Co., FL could have met Christiana Williamson who perhaps might have been living across the Florida/Georgia border, but why would they then travel to Stewart Co., GA to get married? Personally, through my research of our families in Barnwell and Beaufort, I’ve developed a belief that Christiana Williamson is from the Williamson clan who are early residents of Barnwell Co., SC. The family eventually expands to Screven Co., GA and they have large holdings in Beaufort Co., SC. I think it’s likely when Christiana says she was born in Georgia, it was Screven Co., GA which is directly across the Savannah River from the Lower Three Runs where George Washington Rudd lived in Barnwell. My impression is that Christiana Williamson and perhaps other members of her family migrated with George Washington Rudd’s family into Georgia and eventually into Dale Co., AL. I believe shortly after George Washington Rudd arrived in Stewart Co., GA, William Wesley and Christiana were married on January 20, 1835. Perhaps they were informally married eariler and only legally registered their marriage when they arrived in Stewart Co., GA. That surely wasn't unusual for the times. This leads me to my third hypothesis as to why William Wesley may not be reflected in the 1830 Jefferson Co., FL census with the Elias David Rudd family; he stayed behind in South Carolina and came to Georgia with his uncle, George Washington.

Going back to Elias David in Jefferson Co., FL and his two unknown daughters, in my previous posting I proposed those daughters were Martha Rudd who married James Carter on January 8, 1835 and Rebecca Rudd who married Thomas Peak about 1833. I’m surely more certain about Rebecca than I am of Martha because of Rebecca and Thomas Peak’s close proximity to Seth Jackson in the Stewart Co., GA census. But if we assume Martha is Elias David’s daughter, then she married James Carter about two weeks before William Wesley married Christiana Williamson in Stewart Co., GA. This could indicate the time frame for Elias David and Fannie’s migration from Jefferson Co., FL to Stewart Co., GA.

The next record we have is Seth Jackson Rudd, Elias David’s son, married Nancy A. Rudd on August 5, 1838 in Stewart Co., GA. So this begs the question, was Elias David in the area of Stewart Co., GA between 1835 and 1838 based on these records? Well, two additional pieces of evidence have emerged.

Photobucket - Video and Image HostingJacque Rudd and I visited Stewart Co., GA during the genealogy research trip we took to Georgia, Alabama and Florida in the summer of 2002. Perhaps one day Jacque and I will collaborate on a posting about our week of adventure looking for Rudds in courthouses and graveyards from Stewart to Dale to Decatur to Gadsden, down roads that seemed to be taking us nowhere, never really knowing where we would be at the end of the day. It was Jacque's first time to visit Old Friendship where Elias David and Fannie are thought to be buried. But it was a first for both of us to visit Seth Jackson's grave. Words can not express the feelings we both felt standing at the site of Seth's final resting place. It's sadly deteriorating and we do worry that within the next few years Seth's ancestors may not be able to identify his final resting place.

During our adventure we discovered some very interesting things. One of them was a book, “The History of Stewart County, Georgia, Section I”, by Helen Eliza Terrill, that held the following entries:

In December 1836 Elias Rudd is listed as a buyer at Estate Auction of John Benton, Stewart Co., GA.

In March 1839 Elias Rudd is listed as a buyer at Estate Auction of Samuel Williams, Stewart Co., GA.
Yeah, it was most definitely a whoohoo moment!

This seems to indicate that Elias David was indeed living in the Stewart Co., GA area. And if he wasn’t in Stewart by the time his son William Wesley married Christiana Williamson on January 20, 1835, he was there shortly after and remained in the area until at least March of 1839.

Photobucket - Video and Image HostingNow this brings me to my theory that when George Washington Rudd left Barnwell, he went to Stewart Co., GA and reunited with his brother, Elias David. And this is why Elias David went to Stewart Co., GA. There was a well used migration trail out of Augusta, GA that ran across the State of Georgia to Montgomery, AL known as the Macon-Montgomery Trail. It passes just north of Stewart County as it heads through Columbus, GA on the way to Montgomery, AL.
Click for larger view of trails.

Given the fact that in 1835 the Creek Indians were once again on the warpath in the area of the Georgia/Florida border where the Old Trading Path Trail ran, it’s doubtful that George Washington would have used that trail for migration into Georgia. This is one of the reasons why I don’t believe George Washington was ever in Jefferson Co., FL. The other reason is that it's evident that Elias David left Jefferson Co., FL around the time that George Washington left Barnwell Co., SC. Therefore, neither Martha Rudd nor Rebecca Rudd were his daughters.

George Washington Rudd was between 51 and 55 years old when he migrated with his family out of Barnwell to “settle in Georgia” as James Dallas writes in his letter. It’s most probable that James Dallas never knew his grandfather, George Washington, because he appears to have died within 5 years of leaving Barnwell. He does not appear in the 1840 Decatur Co., GA census. Remember that James Dallas was telling a history that had been told to him by people who knew his grandfather. He was surrounded by uncles and aunts, cousins and others who probably also migrated into Georgia from South Carolina. He was getting to be an old man and wanted to pass on what he knew about his family history. That’s why he wrote the letter.

I’m so thankful he did. He left us a wonderful gift. A treasure trove of information in just a few words.

June 14, 2006

Elias David Rudd ~ from Beaufort Co. SC to Jefferson Co. FL

Discovering the Two Unknown Daughters

Photobucket - Video and Image HostingI’ve always been fascinated by the courage it must have taken to pack up your family in a wagon, leave all you’ve known behind and set out for new land. What drove Elias David, and later George Washington, to such aspirations?

I can tell you that based on my research of the Rudd families in South Carolina after the Revolution, I have developed in my senses that we are looking at two distinct families that are bound by a common ancestor, but appear to have taken different paths, set different priorities. In Charleston, we have the George Lounsdell Rudd, Sr. clan who are land wealthy, live in what appears to be more of an affluent society, their neighbors are socially influential. In Barnwell and St. Peter’s Parish, Beaufort the family of Elias David and George Washington appear to be living rather modestly, out of the two brothers, only George appears to own land and the area is very rural as compared to the Four Hole Swamp area at St. James Goose Creek.

You can view the South Carolina land records that I have transcribed HERE. Soon I hope to have the North Carolina land records transcribed for your viewing. But I will tell you now, George Lounsdell appears to be very land wealthy in North Carolina too as compared to Burlingham 2nd.

In reading “The History of Beaufort County, South Carolina, Volume 1 1514-1861” I came across two interesting passages I want to share with you. In the first passage, the authors are describing the living conditions in St. Peter’s Parish as compared to the two other Parishes in the county. St. Peter’s was the “poorer” of the other two because most of Beaufort at the time was plantations for growing cotton and later rice with many absentee landlords that generally lived in Charleston. The plantations hadn’t yet spread to St. Peter’s Parish at the time when Elias David was living there. It might be that eventual push of large plantations to the Savannah River that made the Rudds feel they needed to move west.

Page 304-305
Even the wealthier of the resident families of upper St. Peter’s Parish lived plain and modest lives compared to the style of Charleston, Savannah, and Beaufort. In 1821, Charlotte Verstille, a New England schoolmistress who had moved to Robertville with her husband, Tristram Verstille, a headmaster and mistress of the Black Swamp Academy, described the homes of the more substantial planters of upper St. Peter’s Parish:

These buildings can boast neither of a cellar nor an upper story – all the rooms being on the surface of the ground. Glass windows are quite a rare luxury, light being admitted by throwing open a wooden door swung on hinges where the windows should be. When found necessary to guard against the cold, the light is sure to be excluded. It is surprising how many comforts these people of wealth will voluntarily deny themselves … the grand staple here is bacon – bacon and collards … you will find it on every table in every season.
I’ll remind you that Robertville and Black Swamp are the area of the 1813 land survey where we see land owned by G. Rud and the location of Elias David and Fannie on the 1820 Beaufort Co. census. We can imagine that if the wealthier residents of St. Peter’s Parish lived as such, so did Elias David and Fannie, if not with lesser.

This was a time when the United States was expanding. There had been the Louisiana Purchase in 1802, the Mississippi Migration out of St. Peter’s Parish began as early as 1806. Alabama Fever struck when Alabama became a territory in 1817.The Missouri Compromise in 1820, then in 1822 the Florida Territory was established. All of these probably created a yearning inside of Elias David to establish his own. It doesn’t appear that he owned his own land in South Carolina, or at least I’ve found no record of it. I feel certain though that the location of his residence in the 1820 census is land owned by G. Rudd, probably his brother.

I’m sure Elias David was a farmer, perhaps a planter, most likely cotton and rice. There is no record that either of the brothers owned slaves. That’s another big difference between the Charleston and Barnwell clans. And since they didn’t have any slaves, their farms were most likely small and the families were self-sustaining.

Now, let me share with you another interesting passage from “The History of Beaufort County, South Carolina”.

Page 325
In the chapter “Savannah River Rice Plantations” there is a reference to an 1852 hurricane that devastated the Savannah River area up to Augusta, GA. The Savannah newspaper noted, “The extent of the damage to the crop is impossible to estimate but known to be great.” Two years later (1854) another hurricane swept ashore. It was said to be “the most destructive storm since 1824,” Three-quarters of the rice crop on the Savannah River was destroyed by high water.
So according to this account, in 1824 there was a hurricane that hit Beaufort County that was a destructive storm and was only surpassed in it’s destruction by the storm of 1854. That probably contributed to Elias David’s motivation to move westward.

We know from the reporting of birth location of Elias David’s children that he left Beaufort Co., SC sometime after Rachel Delila was born in September 1826 and the birth of James C. B. in about 1830. And we know that Elias Rudd is listed in the 1830 Jefferson Co., FL census.

I’ve always been intrigued that the children all report they were born in Georgia until the last child, Sarah, who reports she was born in Florida in 1838. We had no record of Elias David in Georgia, but we know that the location in Jefferson Co. FL is on the border with Thomas Co. GA.

Maybe Elias David thought he was in Florida? Maybe when the time came for the birth of the children, Fannie traveled across the state line to a location in Georgia to give birth? However it happened, for years in the census records those children report they were born in Georgia, not Florida.

One thing I think is probably sure; Elias David and Fannie didn’t set out for Florida by themselves. When you look at the families in Beaufort and Barnwell counties, many of them followed the same migration into Florida, Georgia and Alabama. Some of them married into the Rudd family, but many more of them can be seen as neighbors in the new lands. Most likely they migrated out in groups and it’s likely that followed the Old Trading Path trail that ran from just across the old Barnwell and Beaufort area of South Carolina on the Savannah River and crossed Georgia somewhere around upper Thomas Co. GA heading west and crossing the Chattahoochee River at the junction of Jackson and Gadsden counties in Florida ending somewhere near Pensacola Bay.

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Why Jefferson Co. FL? We will never really know why but here’s a little of the history of early Jefferson Co. FL.

The first Europeans to enter what was to become Jefferson County were the members of Panfilo de Narvaez's expedition. They passed through an Apalachee town in 1528. In the 17th century, the Franciscans administered five missions in the county along an east-west line near what would become U.S. Highway 27. These missions were destroyed at the beginning of the 18th century by the English governor of South Carolina in retaliation against Spanish depredations. When American settlers entered the county in the 19th century, the land was occupied not by the Apalachees, who had been dispersed when the missions were abandoned, but by Miccosukees, a branch of the Creeks who became part of the Seminole group.

Florida was ceded by Spain to America in 1818. Settlement of Jefferson County was spurred both by its proximity to Tallahassee, the newly selected capital, and by the suitability of its soil for cotton cultivation. Early settlers bought large tracts of virgin forest, or, if they could, the old fields of the Indians. They cleared this land to plant cotton.

Jefferson County was separated from Leon County in 1827. The county, named for Thomas Jefferson, was established January 6, 1827. Monticello, named for Jefferson's Virginia home, was named county seat before statehood, while Florida was a territory of the United States. Monticello remains the county's only incorporated city.

Robison's Post Office was named its county seat, superseding the older settlement of Waukeenah. The county seat was soon renamed Monticello. The county quickly acquired its first school, the Jefferson Academy, and a courthouse. Its prosperity suffered in the late 1830's when many of the settlers went to fight in the Seminole War. The failure of the Union Bank in Tallahassee also affected the county. In the 1850's, county residents who had been endeavoring to make the Wacissa and Aucilla Rivers navigable by canals adopted the railroad instead as their means of transportation. The arrival of the train at Station Number Two signaled the birth of Lloyd, which prospered with the railroads until the 1930's. The railroad also gave a boost to Aucilla, but Monticello was left stranded three miles north of the main track.
It’s believed that Elias David settled somewhere near Monticello which is approximately 10 miles for the Georgia state line. I’ll call your attention to this statement: “suffered in the late 1830's when many of the settlers went to fight in the Seminole War”. I’ve always thought that perhaps the reason Elias David left Jefferson Co. FL was because of the unrest with the Seminoles. I now think another reason he left was to join his brother George Washington’s family in the Stewart Co. GA area. I’ll tell you more about that in the next segment.

In the 1820 census we see that Elias David and Fannie have 5 children under the age of ten years old in their household, 2 females and 3 males. We know that those three males are mostly likely William Wesley born 1815, Seth Jackson born 1818, and Elias Trowell born 1819. Now, if it was the case that Fannie was a widow when she married Elias David it could be that one of the female children is from her previous marriage. But we know that she was married to Elias David in 1810, ten years earlier, and that William Wesley was born in 1815, five years into the marriage, so my educated guess is that these female children are both the daughters of Elias David and Fannie.

A few years ago, before I discovered these two female children in their household, I had stumbled upon a marriage listed for Martha Rudd and James Carter (misspelled as Catrer) in Jefferson Co. FL on January 8, 1835.

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We have evidence of Elias Rudd in the 1830 Jefferson Co. FL census on page 162, the last line. On page 165, line nine is Joseph Carter and on line ten is Jacob Carter. Also in the 1830 Madison Co. FL census (which is the adjacent country) is Elizabeth Carter, in 1840 she appears in the Jefferson Co. FL census. In 1840 Thomas Co. GA, census at Thomasville (which is adjacent Jefferson Co. FL across the state line) we see James Carter, 20-30 years old with two children under 10. And in the 1840 Stewart Co. GA census is a Jacob Carter. He’s no longer listed in the Jefferson Co. FL census. This is all circumstantial evidence, and the name Carter is very common. But there is no disputing the evidence that a Martha Rudd married a James Carter in Jefferson Co. FL in 1835 and there is no evidence there is any other Rudd family neither in Jefferson Co., FL or adjacent counties, nor in all of Florida before or during the time that Elias David was there.


A couple years later, I received an email inquiry from a Peak family researcher who was looking for the Rebecca Rudd who married Thomas Peak. He was aware that in the 1850 Stewart Co. GA census there is his Thomas Peak living near Seth Rudd. This researcher was working off of old research done by a member of his family and passed to his father. His goal was to identify this mystery Rebecca Rudd as a gift to his father. He knew his Thomas Peak had come out of upper St. Peter’s Parish, Beaufort Co. SC but he couldn’t find a Rudd there. (Of course not! Elias is listed in the index as Reed!) I was very surprised when I received the family group sheet for Thomas Peak and Rebecca Rudd and it listed their marriage in 1833 Jefferson Co. FL! Surely the person who originally did this Peak family research could not pull something like this out of the air. Especially since there is no evidence that this Peak family was ever in Jefferson Co. FL. As a matter of fact, the person I was communicating with asked me if I thought that was a mistake and it was actually Jefferson Co. GA since that county is adjacent to Burke which is across the Savannah River from the St. Peter’s Parish area in Beaufort Co., SC where Thomas Peak’s family came from. Well, that might be possible, but I don’t think it’s likely. He was under the impression that perhaps Rebecca was a Rudd living in that part of Georgia. To my knowledge, there is no Rudd in Jefferson Co. GA in the 1830. There is a Rud in Richmond in 1830 which is adjacent to Jefferson Co. and Burke Co., but I just think that when you add in the evidence that both the Peak family and Elias David were living in upper St. Peter’s Parish at the same time, add to that this old Peak research lists Thomas and Rebecca married in Jefferson Co., FL and in 1850 both Thomas with Rebecca and Seth Jackson Rudd (son of Elias David) with Nancy are living in Stewart Co., GA very near each other. And here’s another interesting fact. In 2002 when Jacque Rudd and I visited Seth’s grave, there were descendants of Thomas Peak buried in the same graveyard, Rehoboth Church Cemetery, Randolph Co. GA. And Thomas Peak’s Last Will and Testament was filed in Randolph Co. GA where he died as did Seth and wife, Nancy. There is obviously a relationship between Seth Jackson and Rebecca Rudd, wife of Thomas Peak.

So I’m going to propose that the household of Elias David and Fannie in 1820 Beaufort Co. SC looked like this:
3m -10 ..... William Wesley, Seth Jackson, Elias Trowell
1m 26/45 .. Elias David
2f -10 ...... Martha and Rebecca
1f 26/45 ... Fannie

Now it is possible these two females are the daughters of George Washington Rudd, Elias David’s brother. But I’ve never found any evidence of George Washington Rudd in Jefferson Co., FL. And let’s recall what the James Dallas letter said about his grandfather George W. Rudd:

"My grandfather Rudd's name was Geo. W. Rudd. He came from N.C. & settled in GA. He had a brother Elias Rudd.”
Before I live this, let me tell you what I think about the 1830 Jefferson Co. FL census because I think it has contributed to so much confusion about the parentage of William Wesley.

The household looks like this: Elias and Fannie, with 4 boys and 3 girls.
1m -5
1m 5/10
2m 10/15
1m 30/40
1f -5
1f 5/10
1f 10/15
1f 20/30

And the children born at the time look like this: Elias and Fannie, 5 boys and 4 girls.
1811 c. ......... Martha
1813 c. ......... Rebecca
1815 Mar 22 ... William Wesley
1818 ............ Seth Jackson
1819 Feb 28 ... Elias Trowell
1822/3 c. ...... Mary
1824 May 2 .... Samuel A.
1826 c. ........ Joshua
1826 Sept ..... Rachel

First, let’s keep in mind that census records aren’t always reliable and we don’t know the circumstances of the recording of this information. Did someone give the information? If so, we don’t know who. Did the census taker just guess at it based on who he saw at the time? Was it properly transcribed? One thing that I’ve already pointed out is that Fannie’s age is recorded incorrectly. She and Elias David were married in 1810, they have now been married 20 years, therefore, and she is NOT 20/30 years old! She’s most likely somewhere between 36 and 40 years old.

There has been speculation that Fannie and Elias David had a son named Joshua born about 1826. I don’t doubt that Elias David and Fannie had a son named Joshua. I tend the believe that information came from a source that had that knowledge, perhaps an old family bible that has been lost, perhaps it was Mallie Croft Erickson’s interviews with Harriett Finn and Mary Sadberry in 1930 and 1938.

When I began the Rudd family research, many people shared information with me and everyone included a son named Joshua living in the 1830 census but not listed in the 1840 census, nor is there any estimated death date, no family story of how he died. In 1840 he would not have been old enough to be on his own and if he was, he surely would have shown up in the census somewhere because we can see how clannish the Rudds are. So I have to assume that someone years ago was told that Elias David and Fannie had a son named Joshua that died as a child and they could give no more information or surely it would have also been recorded just as his name was.

Therefore, I think we have to give consideration that he might not have been living in the 1830 census. If Joshua was born in 1828 and died before 1930 he wouldn’t be reflected in the 1830 census. And giving a one year adjustment for the ages of Elias Trowell and Samuel A. the 1830 household could look like this:

1m -5 ...... Samuel A.
1m 5/10 ... Elias Trowell
2m 10/15 .. Seth Jackson and William Wesley
1m 30/40 .. Elias David
1f -5 ........ Rachel
1f 5/10 .... Mary
1f 10/15 ... Rebecca age 17 or Martha age 19
1f 20/30 ... Fannie (Fannie married in 1810, she is 30/40)

Yes, that does still leave the problem that we’ve got one too many daughters to account for who aren’t yet married, but that doesn’t necessarily mean they are living in the household.

I’ll propose another scenairo.

Joshua is living in the house and William Wesley is absent. And the 20/30 year old female isn’t Fannie, it’s one of the unknown daughters, perhaps Martha who would be about 19 years old. Because Fannie is about to give birth to James C. B. who was born about 1830 and Wesley has taken her to Georgia.

My point is that, we can’t make judgements based on one census. We have to look at the big picture and take into consideration all the clues that are presented to us.

June 13, 2006

The Fannie Breland Tanner Mystery

What MYSTERY.. you ask?

Well, I’ll tell you.

Like most of us I think, when I heard the name Fannie Breland Tanner, I assumed Fannie’s middle name was indicative of her mother’s family’s surname. Thus, her mother was born a Breland and her father was born a Tanner.

But let’s look back at what Mallie Croft Erickson documented for us more or less 70 years ago. From her notes:

The following information was given to me by Harriette Ann Finn, wife of Ellison James Rudd, and Mary Sadberry, 2nd wife of Elias Trowell Rudd, in 1930 and 1939 respectively; Elias had a sister who married a Kitterer or Kittarer. Each also confirmed that his wife was Fannie Tanner.

I have learned that his wife in one place is referred to as Fannie Breeland. Could it possibly be that he married a widow? If so which of the names is the maiden name? Oh well, such are the problems confronting genealogy research. Who is she, where did she come from, who are her people, etc, etc.
Now for those of you who are not aware of the Elias Trowell Rudd line. Elias Trowell was the son of Elias David and Fannie. He had a son named Ellison James who was the husband of Harriette Ann Finn, Thus, she is Fannie’s granddaughter-in-law. Mary Sadberry was Elias Trowell’s 2nd wife and therefore, Fannie’s daughter-in-law. So in 1930 Harriette and in 1939 Mary both told Mallie that Fannie was a Tanner. I take this to mean that Fannie was a Tanner by birth. Or at least, her father was a Tanner.

Now Mallie also says “that his wife in one place is referred to as Fannie Breeland.” Well, I believe she was referring to Elias David’s response in his War of 1812 Pension Application:

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Elias says his wife’s name is Frances Breland and they were married in Beaufort County, SC in 1810.

This seems to indicate that at the time of their marriage Fannie’s last name was Breland. Not Tanner. I don’t think that Mallie had actually seen Elias David’s War of 1812 Pension Application, but it sounds like someone told her about it because she refers to Fannie instead of Frances and she spells Breeland with a double e.

First, let’s determine Fannie’s birth year by looking at what is reported in the census records:
1820 Beaufort Co., SC census 26/45 ... born: 1775-1794
1830 Jefferson Co., FL census 20/30 .. born: 1800-1810
1840 Dale Co., AL census 40/50 ........ born: 1790-1800
1850 Gadsden Co., SC census 60 ....... born: 1790

Since Elias David says he and Fannie were married in 1810, then she most definitely was born before 1800. We can throw out that 1830 report! If we take all the various ages reported on the other censuses for Fannie, I think we can determine she was born between 1790 and 1794.

Also note that Elias David filed this application on November 1, 1875 and says that he is 87 years old making his birth date sometime between November 2, 1787 and October 31, 1788.

Based on the mystery at hand .. How can Fannie be both a Breland and a Tanner? .. I set out on my mission to try and solve this mystery by investigating the Breland and the Tanner families in the same area of South Carolina as our Rudd families. I discovered that both the Breland and the Tanner families were long time residence of the South Carolina Low Country, with the Brelands more clearly defined and living at Boggy Gut in St. Peter’s Parish, Beaufort Co.

Looking for Tanner in the census is much like looking for Rud in the early days. The transcription of the spelling of the name is very difficult to identify. I was quite surprised, however, when I was searching the South Carolina Archives for land records and I kept turning up Robert Tanner as the surveyor of numerous tracts of land. The Tanners date back to the early 1730’s in the same area that was back then called Granville District, specifically around Purrysburg which is located in St. Peter’s Parish, Beaufort Co.

In addition I found in the South Carolina Archives a 1793 land grant to Captain Robert Tanner for 820 acres located in the District of Beaufort, St. Peter’s Parish, situated on Carter’s Branch, a prong of the Great Swamp, the waters of New River. On the 1825 map of Beaufort this area appears to be slightly northeast of the town of Purysburgh and southeast of Boggy Gut. Boggy Gut is the location of the 1813 land survey showing Absolom Breland and G. Rud land. You can view the general area HERE.

But the Tanners aren’t as clearly defined as a family as the Brelands. I found a wonderful Breland Family website which clearly identifies how the Brelands in Beaufort are related to each other. The patriarch is Abraham Breland. Sr. The Absolom Breland on the 1813 land survey that bears the name G. Rud appears to be Abraham Sr.’s son Absolom Breland, Sr. And this Absolom Sr. appears to be the same Absolom Breland in the 1820 census that also list Elias Rudd (and William and John Tanner).

On that census you’ll see Elias Rudd with Fannie both aged 26/45. Two lines up is William Taner, age 16/26 and at the bottom of the page we see John S. Taner, age 26/45. These two Taner male head of households are perhaps her brothers, maybe cousins. Note Absolom Breland and son Jessy Breland are nearby. This most likely is Absolom Breland, Sr, son of Abraham Breland, Sr.

We have clear evidence that members of the Breland and Tanner families, and Elias Rudd all lived in the same general area of St. Peter’s Parish at the same time. I’ll tell you now that I’ve not been able to solve the mystery, but I have narrowed it down to some possibilities and I’ve also discovered some very interesting connections that I want to share with you.

First the possibilities.

Was Fannie a Breland by birth?

Based on the available information at the Breland Family Website and based on Fannie’s estimated birth year, she could be a child of one of Abraham Breland, Sr’s children, she fits in that generation. There are about a half dozen possibilities of females that haven’t yet been defined by name. But there are no females listed as married to Elias David Rudd.

Was Fannie at one time married to and then divorced from a Breland male?

I’ve not found any record of this but I don’t think it’s likely for the time period.

Was she a Breland widow?

Based on her birth year and based on the information at the website, there is one possibility, Samuel Breland born about 1789 and son of Absolom Breland, Sr. The same Absolom Sr. that appears to be the owner of the land on the 1813 land survey and the same Absolom Sr. that appears on the 1820 census. There is no additional information on this Samuel Breland but I am in contact with the website owner and hope he can shed some more information on Samuel.

Was she an illegitimate child of a female Breland that was fathered by a Tanner?

This of course is possible and we have an example of the confusion that this type of parentage can create with Harriet Finn, wife of Ellison James Rudd. Based the information on the website and her birth year, there appears to be one possibility, Patience Breland born about 1774 in Boggy Gut, daughter of Abraham Breland, Sr. but there is no other information on her.

Like I mentioned before, the Tanner family is not that easy to analyze. I can’t tell how they relate to each other. It’s difficult to even identify all the Tanners in the area using the census. There appear to be several based on the land records but land records only indicate who owned the land not who was living there. So it’s not possible to identify which Tanner could be Fannie’s father. But I don’t think that she became Fannie Breland Tanner because she had married first a man named Tanner. Both Harriette Finn and Mary Sadberry said Fannie was a Tanner.

As I was working with the Breland website, I noticed that most of Abraham Breland, Sr.'s extended family died in Mississippi. Now let me tell you about the interesting connections I discovered.

While I was reading up on the history of Beaufort in a great resource book: “The History of Beaufort County, South Carolina, Volume 1, 1514-1861” by Lawrence S. Rowland, Alexander Moore and George C. Rogers, Jr., I discovered on page 302 and 303:

In 1806, ninety-seven settlers from upper St. Peter’s Parish, led by Robert Tanner and Reverend Moses Hadley of Pipe Creek Church, abandoned their farms, packed their belongings, gathered up their families, and set out in ox-driven wagons for Mississippi. When they reached the Tennessee River they boarded flatboats and floated down the river to the Ohio river, and then down the Mississippi River to Fort Adams. Near Fort Adams they founded the town of Woodyville, Mississippi. Many members of the Grimball and Robert families were part of this first Mississippi Migration.

Two years later, Seth Stafford, the youngest brother of Colonel William Stafford who had moved from North Carolina in 1766, took his family as well as some Cheney, Robert, and Maner relatives on the long trek to Mississippi. Ten years later, in 1818, many of this group moved across the Mississippi River to Louisiana where William Fendon Cheney founded Cheneyville.

In 1811, a third group from St. Peter’s Parish joined the Mississippi Migration. Led by Alexander Scott, John Stafford, and John Audibert, this group included Reverend Howell Wall of the Black Swamp (Robertville) Church, John Tison, David McKenzie, William H. Tuten, Namaan and Seth Smart, Robert Chisolm, Joseph Tanner, Benjamin T. D. Lawton, and Allen and Morris Sweat. Not all of these pioneers, however, found success in Mississippi. Benjamin and Joseph Lawton, Namaan and Seth Smart, and Allen and Morris Sweat all returned with their families to their ancestral homes in upper St. Peter’s Parish.
So according to this information, Robert Tanner, most likely Robert Tanner, Jr., was involved in the 1806 migration to Mississippi and in 1811 Joseph Tanner also left for Mississippi.

I had posted an inquiry on a Tanner message board and received a response from a Tanner researcher who provided me with the forward to a book about a descendant of this Robert Tanner, Jr. line. Here is the relevant part:

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You can read the forward HERE and HERE.

As is stated in the forward at the links I've provided, Robert Tanner came to Cheneyville, Louisiana by way of Woodyville, Mississippi. My contact kindly searched the book for me and determined that of the list of names of the children of Robert Tanner, Jr., none of them are unaccounted for and none of them list Elias David Rudd as a spouse. In addition all the females died in Cheneyville.

Bummer huh!!

What grabbed my attention was the statement that Robert Tanner, Jr. had a father named Robert Tanner, Sr. Also in “The History of Beaufort” above, we note that there was a third migration led by a Joseph Tanner. Those migrations by the way are probably how members of the Breland family show up in Mississippi. Maybe Fannie’s father was Joseph Tanner. Perhaps Robert Tanner, Sr. had other sons and one of them was her father.

Here’s another interesting piece of this mystery related to Gadsden/Jackson County, Florida area.

In the booklet “From Mount Vernon to Chattahoochee, A history of Mt. Vernon, River Junction, Chattahoochee and vicinity” by Grady Turnage, on page 1 it says:

The First Whites

It must have looked a lot like the view from Washington’s home on the Potomac River in Virginia as John Tanner stood on the heights in 1821, and gazed at the point where the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers merged to form the Apalachicola River on the Georgia/Spanish Florida boundary. So they called it Mount Vernon when Tanner and his family, the first whites to settle that corner of the new United States Territory, homesteaded in Section 33 of the remote frontier lands of West Florida. Another attraction of the area could have been the rich soil or the forest of rare, sharp-needled, evergreen gopher wood trees that covered the slopes above the river.

John Tanner might have been one of “Old Hickory” Jackson’s Tennesseans or Georgians who stormed into Spanish Florida from Fort Scott on the Flint River in 1818, wiping out Seminole villages all the way to the Suwannee river and Saint Marks. Maybe he liked what he saw in the swamps here. Although Tanner was the first white man to settle in what is now Chattahoochee, William Stuart Pope, kin of the Tanners, William Ellis, and John Collins settled on the land along the Apalachicola River prior to July 27, 1821.
When I read this passage years ago after this booklet was given to me as a gift from James Owen Rudd in Chattahoochee, he and I talked about the possibility that Fannie was related to this John Tanner but I had no information to work with as to where this John Tanner had migrated from. So I went back to read the section and noticed the name William Stuart Pope. Since I had read the passage the first time, I had pursued a great deal of research in both the Barnwell and Beaufort records, so when I read the passage again the name Pope and the statement “kin of the Tanners” raised a flag for me.

I did a search to see if I could find any William Stuart Pope researchers and the following is an example of what I turned up:

My 2X gt-gdfather WILLIAM STUART POPE 1789-1837 settled in Jackson County, FL about 1823. He likely went to FL from a home in Beaufort Co. SC (I note with great interest that there is a Pope Cemetery in Beaufort) and is likely also to have had at least 3 siblings: a Col. John Pope, a sister ? Elizabeth Pope Tanner (both settled in FL?) and a brother named Green Pope who went to TX in the 1820s. My lineal ancestors from William Stuart Pope 1789-1837 to present all are buried in Sneads, FL (or have graves reserved there!) but William Stuart, thought to have gone from Beaufort to Jackson Co. FL is my "brick wall" tracing backward.
Hummm .. it does appear that William Stuart Pope was from Beaufort and he had a sister who evidently married a Tanner. My guess is that Tanner was from Beaufort also and the John Tanner in Chattahoochee “being kin” to this William Stuart Pope is also from the Tanner clan in Beaufort.

Unfortunately, the Fannie Breland Tanner mystery is not solved, and perhaps it never will be. I leave the evidence that I discovered in my mission to learn more about Fannie for the readers to decide. One thing I do think is clearer now is that we can’t assume that Fannie Breland Tanner was her actual name. It very well could have been Frances Tanner Breland Rudd. But either way, the three families are tied together.

My records show that Fannie died on August 14, 1855, somewhere between the age of 61-65 years old. I’m sure that date was passed to me by another researcher and perhaps comes by way of the family information compiled by Mallie Croft Erickson. We truly are indebted to her for all the work she did gathering information for us that surely would have been lost forever.

Over the course of about 27 years, Fannie and Elias David had 13 children. Elias went on to live for about 21 more years. He was somewhere around 90 years old when he died. He had filed for a War of 1812 Pension only three years earlier.

Before I close this posting I want to share just one more curious discovery for those of the Elias Trowell Rudd line. Some of us have always wondered where the name Trowell came from as it does not appear in the family previous to Elias Trowell, who was the son of Elias David and Fannie. Take a look HERE on this 1810 Beaufort census. You’ll see among the Breland names, who appear to be the sons of Abraham Breland, Sr. … Joseph Trowell. It’s hard to say but it’s probably the case that this Joseph Trowell is Elias Trowell Rudd's namesake. If we only knew why.

Sounds like a new mission!